How Long Do Video Tapes Last?
Video Tape Lifetime Varies
Working Video Tape Equipment Is Becoming Scarce
Another factor to consider; VCRs are no longer manufactured. The last VHS recorder rolled off of the assembly line in 2016 and electronics companies no longer support old hardware. At Nostalgic Media, we anticipated a shortage of VCRs and transfer systems. That’s why we stockpiled equipment and replacement parts for the future. We are always maintaining and repairing our VCRs and conversion systems to deliver consistent high quality transfers. Eventually, components will wear out and there won't be any spare parts to keep the equipment working. Don’t put it off. Get your tapes transferred today.
Video Tape Anatomy
Video tape is magnetic metal oxide (i.e. rust) that's glued to a ribbon of mylar—with a bit of lubricant so the tape will slide through the VCR. Humidity can cause the tape to delaminate; the glue fails and the metal oxide doesn’t stick to the substrate. The tape sheds causing dropout. When viewed, dropout is seen as white streaks moving across the video.
Tapes Wear Out
A videotape that’s been viewed fifty times will show substantial wear, dropout and damage. Tape will stretch with multiple rewinding and playback. The lubricant eventually wears away or turns into a sticky mess.
Warning: Be careful when previewing tapes with an old VCR
It’s not a good idea to preview your 25 year old tapes on a 25 year old VCR. As the tape lubricant ages, it can become sticky and clog the playback heads. Also, an old VCR will often have issues with alignment, warped gears, rotted belts and cracked rollers that will damage the tape. Wrinkled and creased tapes cannot be repaired.
Tape Quality Matters
There is a difference with tape quality. High-grade tapes tend to be more durable and have greater metal particle density which means a longer shelf life. Cheap tapes that flooded the market 1990’s were cheap for a reason; flimsy cassette shells, low density metal oxide and inferior substrate which reduces shelf life.
Recording Speed Matters
Recording speed is a significant factor with image quality. Consumer VHS VCRs and camcorders had three speeds: SP, LP and SLP (also known as EP):
SP (Standard Play) was the fastest speed and gave the best picture: about 240 horizontal lines of resolution. In SP mode, a camcorder or VCR would record 2 hours (120 minutes) on a T-120 tape.
LP (Long Play) speed would record 4 hours on a T-120 tape. The trade off is the picture quality; about 130 horizontal lines.
SLP (Super Long Play) or EP (Extended Play) was the slowest speed, recording 6 hours on a T-120 tape. The picture quality is the bottom of the barrel: about 100 horizontal lines. Resolution is so low that the video appears out of focus and fuzzy. The slower speed also causes a noticeable reduction in audio quality.
Common Video Tape Formats & Shelf Lives
VHS - Shelf Life: Average
VHS was the most common format, used with desktop VCRs to record television shows and view prerecorded movies. Remember Blockbuster video? Those movies were VHS. VHS was also a common format for camcorders since the same tape would play in your VCR without an adapter. Shelf life varies among tape grades and manufacturers. Like most things in life, you get what you pay for. The expensive, high grade tapes last longer than the cheap bargain basement variety.
VHS-C - Shelf Life: Below Average
VHS-C is a smaller cassette loaded with the same half-inch width tape used in standard VHS. The “C” stood for “Compact. “ It was a designed to be used in a line of small camcorders to compete against Sony’s Video-8 format (see below). Even though the quality was not up to Video-8, the advantage was that VHS-C tapes could be played in a desktop VCR with an adapter (Video-8 cannot be played with an adapter). Since the blank tapes were expensive, most consumers would set their camcorders to record at the slowest speed, SLP or EP, in order to squeeze 90 minutes of low-quality recording (130 lines) on a tape that was intended to record 30 minutes of high quality video. Audio quality suffered too. Furthermore, the cassette is full of small gears and belts which sometimes break.
Video-8 formats - Shelf Life: Above Average
Sony developed the ultra compact Video-8 format for a line of small camcorders that could fit your hand—marketed as the HandyCam. Called Video-8 since the tape is eight millimeters wide, the video shell is slightly larger than an audio cassette. The tape specifications and recording requirements exceeded standard VHS, with a higher particle density and stronger substrate. The result is a longer shelf life for Video-8 tapes.
Mini-DV - Shelf Life: Excellent
Introduced in 1995, Mini-DV is a completely digital recording system with resolution of 480 lines in standard definition, up to 1080 lines in high definition. The tapes were smaller than Video-8 formats, about half the size. The quality and shelf life of Mini-DV is excellent. This was the last innovation of video tape recording systems. Tape based video became obsolete as tapeless HD cameras recording on memory cards and optical discs have become the norm.